Long description of model 'ODOR-TRANSMISSION'

Table of Contents:

For help concerning the various sections see this page


Basic information [top]

Model name
ODOR-TRANSMISSION

Full model name
ODOR-TRANSMISSION

Model version and status
Version 1.1

Latest date of revision
July 2009

Institutions
Consultants on Air Resources Management

Contact person
Melinda Cseh, Dezso J. Szepesi

Contact address
Levegokornyezeti Bt., Consultants on Air Resources Management Katona Jozsef u. 41 V/25, H-1137 Budapest, Hungary

Phone number
+ 36 1 3293940, +36.20.9341318

Fax number
+ 36 1 3293940

E-mail address
szd12506@ella.hu or modellezopont@levegokornyezet.hu

URL
www.levegokornyezet.hu

Technical support
Melinda Cseh, modellezopont@levegokornyezet.hu

Level of knowledge needed to operate model
Intermediate

Remarks
There is no general remarks.

Intended field of application [top]

ODOR TRANSMISSION 1.1 was developed for the estimation of gaseous odorant concentrations emitted continuously from livestock buildings, chemical factories and municipal solid waste landfills. The model can determine and visualize the area, where odor exceedances occur in a given percentage of the hours of a year.
The model is the developed version of HNS-TRANSMISSION 1.1 (http://pandora.meng.auth.gr/mds/showlong.php?id=48&MTG_Session=adf3bcc42465a62cf8fde5803c130186#d_30).
The improvements concerning odor dispersion modeling and visualization on Google map.
It is downloadable at request: http://www.levegokornyezet.hu/odor.html

Model type and dimension [top]

Odor emission from livestock building: the emission calculation part of the Purdue model (https://engineering.purdue.edu/~odor/setback.htm), dimension: odor unit/second
Outdoor manure storage pools: based on A.J. Herber experiments (Herber, 2002), dimension: odor unit/second
Municipal solid waste landfills: based on Sironi et al., (2005), dimension: odor unit/second
Dispersion model: Bi-Gaussian plume model applied on local scale

Model description summary [top]

ODOR TRANSMISSION 1.1 model is based on three main parts:
1. Odor emission calculation
2. Dispersion model (HNS-TRANSMISSION 1.1)
3. Visualisation on Google-map

1. Odor emission calculation
Livestock buildings: the odor emission calculation is based on the Purdue model. The estimation considers: the type of animals, the number of animals, the manure removal frequency, the manure dilution factor, the area of the storage building, the wind speed above the ground, and odor abatement. The method of the estimation of odor emission is based on the Livestock Unit and factors, developed in laboratory and field works.
Manure storage pools: The emission is calculated concerning the surface wind speed and the area of the storage basin.
Municipal solid waste landfills: The odor emission calculation considers the annual waste acceptance in the waste disposal, the waste density, the working days in one year, the height of the daily deposited waste layer, the surface of the active parcels, the surface of the restored parcels and the total landfill surface. (see Melinda Cseh at al. to be published)

2. Dispersion model:
HNS-TRANSMISSION1.1 (http://pandora.meng.auth.gr/mds/showlong.php?id=48&MTG_Session=adf3bcc42465a62cf8fde5803c130186#d_30) is a Gaussian plume dispersion model. Implementing the results of odor emission calculator, the transmission of odorous gas is determined and odor exceedances are calculated against the distance around the emitting point. Szepesi at al. 2005.

3. Visualization on Google-map:
The setback distance around the livestock building, factory or municipal solid waste landfills - where a given odor exceedencies occurs in a year - is plotted on Google map with accuracy of plus minus 1 meter.

Model limitations/approximations [top]

Odor threshold from authorities is required. For more details, please, refer directly to the contact person.
ODOR-TRANSMISSION is currently suitable for the visualization of area sources setback distance on Google-map.

Resolution [top]

Temporal resolution
30 minutes

Horizontal resolution
No limitation.
In the visualization setback distance (rate of the days when odor exceedencies occurs in one year) is plotted in Google maps with an accuracy of 1 meter

Vertical resolution
One layer representative for the plume

Schemes [top]

Advection & Convection
In case of an elevated point source the wind is taken at the level of the average effective height of the plume. In case of low-level point and area sources it is taken according to the data of wind measurements near the ground. The wind direction is evaluated for 16 sectors. The wind speed is characterized by 7 values. To achieve representative wind data two alternatives exist. Design wind maps were established to furnish readily available regionally and temporally representative wind statistics for level and quasi-level terrain of the country. For the analysis of these maps all available surface wind data series (1881-1989) and upper air ascents (1929-1989) in Hungary were considered.

Turbulence
The turbulent dispersion coefficients have been determined after Nowicki (1976). Values of SygmaY and SygmaZ depend on the stability, the distance, the roughness and the effective source height. The atmospheric stability is estimated by using 300 m deep layers average lapse rate. For area sources the initial dilution is taken into consideration by means of the height and width of the sources. A correction is applied in case of light winds and topographical features.

Deposition
The effects of dry and wet deposition were not considered.

Chemistry
Chemistry was not considered.

Solution technique [top]

The dispersion calculation is solved by Gaussian Plume Model

Input [top]

Availability and Validation of Input data
Transmission matrices are prepared by using wind speed, wind direction and stability data, measured in a five years period for Hungary by using wind fields assimilated for the whole country.

Emissions
Odor emission
Livestock unit:
The estimation of odor emission from a livestock building is based on Purdue model. It considers several factors, which were determined in deeper studies. The factors are based on the field and laboratory measurements of North Dakota State University, Dickinson Research Extension Center and Minnesota University.

Outdoor storage:
The estimation of emitted odor concentration from an outdoor storage basin in a farm is based on field experiment made by A.J. Herber et al. (2002).

Municipal waste disposal:
Odor emission factor estimation is according to Sironi et al. (2005). Based on experimental and literature data a model was built and used satisfactory.

Odor emission calculator for
Livestock buildings:
- Animal type
- Number of animals per type
- Manure removal frequency
- Manure dilution factor
- Odor abatement factor
- Area of the outdoor liquid odor storage basin
- Wind velocity
Municipal waste disposal:
- Annual waste acceptance in the waste disposal
- Waste density
- Working days in one year
- The height of the daily deposited waste layer
- Surface of the active parcels
- Surface of the restored parcels
- Total landfill surface.

Emissions in HSN-Transmission 1.1
The calculated data given by the odor emission calculator is considered as point sources. In addition to the quantity of odorous gas, the following data are required: coordinates x and y, stack height and diameter, exit velocity and temperature of emitted matter.

Meteorology
For Hungary no meteorological data is needed as it is contained in the models 3D matrix database: Hourly data of meteorological elements are used for the determination of wind direction, wind speed, stability class. Multidimensional transmission matrices are input bases for long-term estimations of pollutant concentrations. Such matrices were established for 400 points in Hungary. In the case of other countries, wind frequency, wind speed and stability class is required for the calculation.

Topography
Topography is taken into account by correcting the turbulent dispersion coefficient and the effective height of the source. Dispersion coefficient includes also the parameter of surface roughness.

Initial conditions
Not Available

Boundary conditions
Not Available

Data assimilation options
Wind direction and speed data assimilation is applied by using surface and upper air wind data at 200 stations for the whole country and for the period of 1890 - 1980. The above mentioned data were plotted on maps for each of 16 wind directions and analyzed graphically. These maps make possible to pick up or interpolate yearly average wind direction frequencies and mean speed value data at any point of the country. See details about the analysis in Development of regulatory transmission modeling in Hungary (Szepesi et al., 2005).

Other input requirements
Standard information representing point or area sources are necessary. Besides them: Predetermined values (odor treshold, maximum accepted frequency of exceedances) are required from national or local authorities.

Output quantities [top]

Odor threshold limit exceedencies in tables against distance. Setback distance (rate of the days when odor exceedencies occurs in one year) in Google maps with an accuracy of 1 meter.

User interface availability [top]

WINDOWS Xp, Vista

User community [top]

Consultants, agricultural workers, industries, authorities

Previous applications [top]

1.
Application type
Urban
Application description
Duck farm Odor modeling at Melykut city
Relevant reference:
Melinda Cseh and Dezso Szepesi (2010), Regulatory Odor Modeling in Hungary, to be published in periodical IDOJARAS

Description:
The model was used for a duck farm with 120,000 ducks in October 2008. The meteorological data are used from the model 3D data matrix. The resulted setback distance is between 200 and 350 meters from the source point according to the relevant wind direction frequency.

2.
Application type
Urban
Application description
Pig farm odor modeling at Biharkeresztes city
Relevant reference:
Melinda Cseh and Dezso Szepesi (2010), Regulatory Odor Modeling in Hungary, to be published in periodical IDOJARAS

Description:
The odor setback distance was determined around a pig farm with 10,000 animals in Biharkeresztes in March 2009. The meteorological data are used from the model 3D data matrix. The resulted setback distance is between 750 and 1750 meters from the source point according to the relevant wind direction frequency.

Documentation status [top]

Level 2: Rather good scientific documentation and less complete users manuals.
Scientific documentation will be published in English in 2010 in the periodical IDOJARAS which can be find soon in the webpage: www.levegokornyezet.hu
Users manual available on request from contact persons.

Validation and evaluation [top]

Level 2: Extensive and good model evaluation has been performed, but still uncertainties because of major limitations in the measured data.
Controll model calculations for validation were carried out in 2009 by Tibor Paksa environmental inspector and Tibor Nagy Ph.D. environmental inspector at Szolnok. Both of them find the model satisfactory and suggested for further application in practice.
Sensitivity program was carried out by Consultants on Air Resources Mamagement for different kind of animals (chicken, duck and cattle). The results of this applications showed satisfactory results.

Model intercomparison
Comparison of odor models
Relevant reference:
H. Guo et al. (2004): Comparison of five models for setback distance determination from livestock sites, Canadian Biosystems Egineering
Melinda Cseh and Dezso Szepesi (2010), Regulatory Odor Modeling in Hungary, to be published in periodical IDOJARAS.

Description: The model was compared to three other odor setback distance models for 12 swine farms: Purdue model, OFFSET model and W-T model was compared to ODOR-TRANSMISSION model. The livestock farms located in Minnesota, therefore the Meteorological data of Minnesota were used in the simulation. The best fit appeared with the W-T model, however in all cases a good agreement is given between the models.

Frequently asked questions [top]

  • Q: Is it expectable from EU to set special odor parameters for its countries?
    A: No, according to international practice, this is the task of national or local authorities.
  • Q: Which odor treshold limit values (ranging 3, 4, 5 OU/m3) and exceedances (2, 3 or 4% per year) should be applied?
    A: According to sensitivity studies, 3 OU/m3 treshold limit value and exceedences of 2% gives acceptable results.

Portability and computer requirements [top]

Portability
IBM compatible PC 486 and higher.

CPU time
small CPU time (some minutes)

Storage
200 Mb, handling the virtual map may need some additional memory

Availability [top]

It is available from the contact person on request

References about model development (up to 5) [top]

  • Sironi et al. (2005), Odour emission factors for assessment and prediction of Italian MSW landfills odour impact, Atmospheric Environment 39 5387-5394. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VH3-4GNTG12-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1035131333&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=d1d31c0699ee30f1597e9fd970b02603)
  • A.J. Herber et al. (2002), Odor Flux Measurements at a Facultative Swine Lagoon Stratified by Surface Aeration, Applied Engineering in Agriculture, American Society of Agricultural Engineers ISSN 0883-8542.
  • H. Guo et al. (2004), Comparison of five models for setback distance determination from livestock sites, Canadian Biosystems Engineering. (http://www.engr.usask.ca/societies/csae/protectedpapers/c0338.pdf)
  • Dezso Szepesi, Katalin Fekete, Richárd Büki, László Koncsos (2005), Development of regulatory transmission modeling in Hungary.
  • Melinda Cseh and Dezso Szepesi (2010), Regulatory Odor Modeling in Hungary, to be published in periodical IDOJARAS.

Other references [top]

  • Yanan Xing, (2006) Evaluation of commercial air dispersion models for livestock odour dispersion simulation, Master Thesis of Science, University of Saskatchewan (http://library2.usask.ca/theses/available/etd-01012007-231203/unrestricted/xingthesis.pdf)
  • Lim et al. (2000) Odor impact distance guideline for swine production systems, Odors and VOC Emissions, pp. 773-788(16), Water Environment Federation European Standard, (2003): Air quality - Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry EN 13725:2003 E Department of Environmental Protection, Perth, (2002) Odour Methodology Guideline
  • Smith, R.J. and P.J. Watts. (1994). Determination of Odour Emission Rates from Cattle Feedlots: Part 1, A Review. J. Agricultural Engineering Research, Silsoe Research Institute, Silsoe, England, 57:145-155.
  • Nowicki, M., (1976): Ein Beitrag zur Bestimmung universeller Diffusions-Koeffizienten, Arch. Meteor. Geophis. A., No. 25, 31-45.

 

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