Long description of model 'MEMO'

Table of Contents:

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Basic information [top]

Model name
MEMO

Full model name
Mesoscale Model

Model version and status
Version 6.2

Latest date of revision
September 2005

Institutions
Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Aristotle University Thessaloniki (AUT).

Contact person
Professor, Dr.-Ing. habil Nicolas Moussiopoulos

Contact address
Aristotle University Thessaloniki
Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering
P.O.Box 483
GR-54124 Thessaloniki, GREECE

Phone number
+30 2310 996011

Fax number
+30 2310 996012

E-mail address
moussio@vergina.eng.auth.gr

URL
http://aix.meng.auth.gr/lhtee/projects/

Technical support
Provided by contact person.

Level of knowledge needed to operate model
Basic

Remarks
There is no general remarks.

Intended field of application [top]

Simulation of mesoscale air motion and inert pollutant dispersion at the local-to-regional scale.

Model type and dimension [top]

Three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, prognostic mesoscale model.

Model description summary [top]

MEMO is a prognostic mesoscale model which allows describing the air motion and the dispersion of inert pollutants over complex terrain. The code allows one way nesting. Within MEMO, the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and scalar quantities as potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and specific humidity are solved. The governing equations are solved in terrain-influenced co-ordinates. Non-equidistant grid spacing is allowed in all directions. The numerical solution is based on second-order discretization applied on a staggered grid. Conservative properties are fully preserved within the discrete model equations. The discrete pressure equations are solved with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. Advective terms are treated with the TVD scheme. Turbulent diffusion can be described with either a zero-, one- or two-equation turbulence model. At roughness height similarity theory is applied. The radiative heating / cooling rate in the atmosphere is calculated with an implicit multilayer method for shortwave radiation. The surface layer over land is computed from the surface heat budget equation. The soil temperature and moisture content are calculated by solving an one dimensional heat conduction equation and moisture flux equation respectively. At lateral boundaries and for scalar quantities Neumann or Dirichlet conditions are applied. At lateral boundaries generalized radiation conditions are implemented.

Model limitations/approximations [top]

Any dry high pressure situation, no icing, clouds only diagnostically.

Resolution [top]

Temporal resolution
Time step: 5-30 seconds
Simulated time period: several weeks

Horizontal resolution
Domain size: 1-500 km
Grid cell size: 500-10000 m

Vertical resolution
Domain height: up to 10 km
Grid cell height: 20-500 m (varying with height)

Schemes [top]

Advection & Convection
TVD scheme; FCT scheme also implemented.

Turbulence
Optionally zero-, one- and two-equation shemes.

Deposition
Big-leaf model.

Chemistry
No chemistry is used, only dispersion of inert pollutants.

Solution technique [top]

The discretized equations are solved numerically on a staggered grid. Temporal discretization of the prognostic equations is based on the explicit second order Adams-Bashforth scheme, with two deviations, the first refering to the implicit treatment of the nonhydrostatic part of the mesoscale pressure perturbation. To ensure non-divergence of the flow field an elliptic equation is solved. The elliptic equation is derived from the continuity equation wherein velocity components are expressed in terms of the mesoscale pressure perturbation. It should be noted that since the elliptic equation is derived from the discrete form of the continuity equation and the discrete form of the pressure gradient, conservativity is guaranteed. The discrete pressure equation is solved numerically with a fast elliptic solver in conjunction with a generalized conjugate gradient method. The fast elliptic solver is based on fast Fourier analysis in both horizontal directions and Gaussian elimination in the vertical direction. The second deviation from the explicit treatment is related to the turbulent diffusion in vertical direction. In case of an explicit treatment of this term, the stability requirement may necessitate an unacceptable abridgement of the time increment. To avoid this, vertical turbulent diffusion is treated using the second order Crank-Nicolson method. On principle, advective terms can be computed using any suitable advection scheme. In the present version of MEMO a 3-D second-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) scheme is used which is based on the 1-D scheme (proposed by Harten). It achieves a fair reduction of numerical diffusion, the solution being independent of the magnitude of the scalar (i.e. preserving transportivity).

Input [top]

Availability and Validation of Input data
Support for satellite-derived input data is introduced on the current version of MEMO model for albedo, surface roughness and initial soil moisture. In the mean time, tests are carried out to examine the improvement of model results due to introducing more accurate input data.

Emissions
Emissions of inert pollutans are provided in kg/h/cell area for each grid location.

Meteorology
One dimensional profile of temperature and wind data are provided to be used either for the initial state or time-dependant boundary conditions. Meteorological input is restricted to the large-scale information (i.e. synoptic conditions). Gridded precipitation data can optionally be provided for calculating soil infiltration and moisture profiles.

Topography
Orography height, surface type are to be provided for each grid location; thermophysical data (albedo, volumetric heat capacity, heat conductivity) are needed for each surface type.

Initial conditions
See meteorology.

Boundary conditions
See meteorology.

Data assimilation options
There is no general data assimilation options.

Other input requirements
There is no general requirements. A control file with run options is used.

Output quantities [top]

Wind velocity components, potential temperature, pressure, turbulence data soil moisture profile and optionally concentrations of inert pollutants for each grid location.

User interface availability [top]

Users interface is under construction.

User community [top]

Several Institutions and Laboratories have formed a user community (not formal) that works on development and testing of the model. The model is being used by various governmental and local authorities in several European countries. Users of MEMO should be meteorologists or engineers with a sufficient background in atmospheric sciences and some experience in the use of numerical simulation models.

Previous applications [top]

1.
Application type
Urban
Application description
Simulation of the wind flow in the Valley of Mexico
Relevant reference:
- Wellens A., Moussiopoulos N. and Sahm P. (1994), Comparison of a diagnostic model and the MEMO prognostic model to calculate wind fields in Mexico City, in Computer Simulation (J.M. Baldasano, C.A. Brebbia, H. Power and P. Zannetti, eds), 15-22.
- Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Fuentes V., Jazcilevich A. and Wellens A. (1994), Simulations of the wind flow in the Valley of Mexico in The EUMAC Zooming Model (EZM): Model Structure and Applications (N. Moussiopoulos, ed), EUROTRAC Report, 259-266.
- Simulation of the wind flow in the valley of Mexico, Coordinator: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México - A. Jazcilevich, Research Leader: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Funded by: Comision Metropolitana para la Prevencion Control de la Contaminacion Ambiental en el Valle de Mexico, 1993-1994.
Description:
Model MEMO was used to simulate the local wind flow in the Valley of Mexico on February 22, 1991, a date in the midst of an intensive experimental campaign involving more than a dozen participating institutions. This day is characterized by a synoptic flow from WSW and a strong radiative inversion in the evening and during the night.
Initial and boundary conditions for the simulations such as measurements for model performance were formulated using the upper air soundings at the Mexico City International Airport and surface monitoring stations located into the Valley of Mexico.
In general, the predicted wind direction is for all sites in very good agreement with the observed one. As far as the wind speed is concerned, the agreement is satisfactory during the night and in the early morning. Later in the morning and in the afternoon the model seems to underestimate the wind speed. The most probable reason for this underestimation is the inadequate grid resolution.
2.
Application type
Urban
Application description
Assessment of Policy Instruments for Efficient Ozone Abatement Strategies in Europe
Relevant reference:
- Friedrich R, Reis S (eds) (2000) Tropospheric Ozone Abatement – Developing Efficient Strategies for the Reduction of Ozone Precursor Emissions in Europe. Springer Publishers, ISBN 3-540-66614-1
- Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Tourlou P.M., Nitis T., Azad A.K. and Papalexiou S. (2000), Tropospheric ozone and urban air quality, in Tropospheric Ozone Abatement in Europe – Developing Efficient Strategies to Reduce Ozone Precursor Emissions, (R. Friedrich and S. Reis, eds.), Springer, Heidelberg, 121-150.
- Tourlou P.M., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2002), Integrated assessment of air pollution abatement strategies in urban areas: Application to the greater Athens area, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 731-744.
- Assessment of policy instruments for efficient ozone abatement strategies in Europe, Coordinator: Universitat Stuttgart, Institut fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung - R. Friedrich, Research Leader: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Funded by: CEC, Environment and Climate Programme, 1996-1998.
- URL: http://www.scientificjournals.com/sj/espr/Pdf/aId/3026
Description:
EZM system was applied to three mesoscale European urban areas (Stuttgart, Athens and Milan) for simulating ozone levels considering the emission situation at two time horizons, namely 1990 and 2010. For the latter, three emission reduction scenarios were adopted. In a first stage, the business as usual scenario was investigated. Consecutively, two local scale 50% reductions of NOx and VOC emissions, respectively, were applied on top of the business as usual scenario. In order to assess the impact of all proposed emission interventions on ozone exposure, the EZM system was applied for a multi-month period over the areas of interest. Model results showed that although the situation is expected to ameliorate with the implementation of the future scenarios, exceedances of the ozone threshold values are still predicted for both the urban and the non-urban sites of the areas considered. This indicates that more efficient measures are necessary in order to achieve the targets defined in the Framework Directive of the EU with regard to ozone.
3.
Application type
Regional
Application description
Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and Development of Control Infrastructure
Relevant reference:
- Helmis C.G., Moussiopoulos N., Flocas H.A., Sahm P., Assimakopoulos V.D., Naneris C. and Maheras P. (2003), Estimation of transboundary air pollution on the basis of synoptic-scale weather types, International Journal of Climatology 23, 405-416.
- Moussiopoulos N., Helmis C.G., Flocas H.A., Louka P., Assimakopoulos V.D., Naneris C. and Sahm P. (2003), A modelling method for estimating transboundary air pollution in South-eastern Europe, Environmental Modelling and Software 19, 549-558.
- Long-range transboundary air pollution and development of control infrastructure, Coordinator: University of Athens - K. Helmis, Research Leader: AUT - N. Moussiopoulos, Funded by: Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, 1997-1999.
Description:
Among the objectives of this study was to supply a scientific support to the Hellenic Ministry of Environment and Public Works in the frame of its responsibilities dictated by the International Convention for the Long Range Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of the United Nations, which was signed on 13/11/79 in Geneva by the UN member states. In the frame of this project, the Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering in Aristotle University Thessaloniki, was responsible to study the air flow and the transboundary air pollutant transport of SO2 and NOx, by applying air pollution mathematical models. The selection of the best model or models system was made after the detailed validation of all the available ones, which concluded to the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO and the Eulerian dispersion model TRAPPA. These models were applied to study the import-export pollution balance between Greece and its neighbouring countries. For this purpose, simulations were performed for each day between 1 January and 31 December 1995. The simulation domain covers an area of 1500×1500 km2 at a spatial resolution of 50km. This area includes practically the whole of the Balkan peninsula and parts of Italy and Turkey. Results indicate that Greece is essentially a receptor of SO2 coming mainly from its northern and western boundaries while being an emitter of NOx mainly to the south.

Documentation status [top]


Level 1: Complete documentations available in three languages, ranging from the scientific description down to users manuals and interace documentation with details on the machine code.

Validation and evaluation [top]

Level 2: Individual modules validated against analytical solutions; model participated successfully at model intercomparison activities (see references); through multiple applications MEMO has been found capable of sucessfully reproducing mesoscale flow features like the sea breeze circulation, mountain and valley wind systems and the heat island phenomenon.

Model intercomparison
Athens 2004 Air Quality Study
Relevant reference:
- Moussiopoulos N. and Papagrigoriou S., eds (1997), Athens 2004 Air Quality, International Scientific Workshop Athens 2004 Air Quality Study, Athens, February 1997, 183 pp.
- Moussiopoulos N. and Papagrigoriou S., eds (1998), Athens 2004 Air Quality, CD-ROM edition, FiatLux Publications, e-mail: FiatLuxPub@aik.com, http://envirocomp.org/html/publish/CDROM/Athens/flyer.pdf.
- Moussiopoulos N. Papagrigoriou S., Bartzis J.G., Nester K., Van den Bergh H. and Theodoridis G. (2000), Forecasting air quality in the greater Athens area for the year 2004: An intercomparison of the results of four different dispersion models, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 14, 343-353.
- URL: http://aix.meng.auth.gr/lhtee/projects/athens2004/athens.html
Description:
In September 1997 the International Olympic Committee decided that the XXVIII Olympic Games in 2004 was to be held in Athens. One of the major issues raised during the evaluation of the Athens bid was the level of air pollution in the city. In view of the planned and ongoing infrastructure changes in the Greater Athens area, the bid Committee Athens 2004 initiated an international scientific activity aiming at forecasting the evolution of air quality in Athens until 2004. Within the framework of the Athens 2004 Air Quality Study the impact of all major infrastructure changes currently under construction on future air quality in Athens was investigated with the aid of four different dispersion models. Simulations were also carried out for the emission situation in 1990, both as a basis for comparison and in order to illustrate that the model results reproduce satisfactorily the observed 1990 air pollution patterns.
The nested version of the prognostic mesoscale model MEMO, one of the core models of the European Zooming Model, was applied to predict the current and future NOx concentration levels in the Greater Athens area. Two emission scenarios are considered in the simulations corresponding to the years 1990, representing the present emission situation, and 2004, taking into account the foreseeable infrastructure changes in Athens until the year 2004. Calculations are performed for two days, 25.5.1990 and 7.7.1994, representing worst and typical meteorological conditions concerning air quality, respectively. Simulation results are presented in comparison with observations. Results show a good agreement between predictions and observations for the present situation and give clear evidence for a decrease of NOx concentration levels for the year 2004 compared to the ones for 1990.

ESCOMPTE pre-campaign
Relevant reference:
- Moussiopoulos N. and Douros I. (2003), Evaluation and sensitivity tests of MEMO using the ESCOMPTE pre-campaign dataset, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 20, 55-63.
- Moussiopoulos N., Douros I., Louka P., Simonidis C. and Arvanitis A. (2002), Evaluation of MEMO using the ESCOMPTE pre-campaign dataset, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes (E. Batchvarova and D. Syrakov eds), Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-17 October, 87-91.
Description:
MEMO was applied to the Greater Marseille area (GMA) in order to simulate airflow patterns observed during the ESCOMPTE pre-campaign period. The main objective was the evaluation of the mesoscale model MEMO as until now a correlation between the modelled and measured variables for the particular area has not been examined. At the same time the output of MEMO is compared with the output of other mesoscale models (cf. Galmarini & Peuch, 2002) in the frame of an intercomparison exercise. The selected case-study was the period between 29/6/2000 and 1/7/2000, i.e. a summer period for which, depending on the meteorological conditions, the formation of photochemical smog may be favoured. The numerical grids used for the simulations covered an area of 648×324 km2. In order to assess the sensitivity of the model results to the grid resolution two different cell sizes were used, namely 4×4 km2 and 2×2 km2. In all cases 25 vertical layers were assumed allowing for the finer resolution at lower altitudes. The depth of the lowermost (shallowest) layer was set to 20m, while model top was fixed at 6 km above the sea level. Soundings performed during the pre-campaign period were used for deriving the initial and boundary conditions of MEMO simulations. The weather situation during the selected period was characterised by relatively light winds. As far as stability is concerned, the conditions of the atmosphere over the GMA could be characterised as unstable.

Frequently asked questions [top]

  • Q: How can you judge the accuracy of the model results?
    A: By applying appropriate statistical tools (see Kunz and Moussiopoulos, 1997).

Portability and computer requirements [top]

Portability
Sufficient experience on Pentium PC and POWERPC; extensive use on various workstation platforms (IBM/RISC, but also Hewlett Packard, DEC Alpha and Linux based PCs); enough experience on IBM SP2, Siemens VP400EX, several CRAYs and VPP5000 Fujitsu.

CPU time
For the typical case of a 50x50 grid size and 4 inert pollutants, the simulation of 1 day needs 90 min of computing (real) time. (On an IBM RS/6000 3BT, specfp95~ 7.5).

Storage
For the same typical case: 20 Mbytes RAM. Disk space: 50-120 Mbytes needed for the output files. Data files from nested runs can occupy an additional 400 Mbytes.

Availability [top]

The model is not a public domain programme. Information on the conditions for obtaining MEMO can be provided by the contact person.

References about model development (up to 5) [top]

  • Kunz R. and Moussiopoulos N. (1995) Simulation of the wind field in Athens using refined boundary conditions, Atmos. Environ. 29, 3575-3591.
  • Moussiopoulos, N. (1987) An efficient scheme to calculate radiative transfer in mesoscale models. Environmental software 2/4, 172-191.
  • Moussiopoulos, N. (1989) Mathematische Modellierung mesoskaliger Ausbreitung in der Atmosphaere, Fortschr.-Ber, VDI, Reihe 15, Nr. 64, pp. 307.
  • Moussiopoulos N., Flassak Th., Sahm P. and Berlowitz D. (1993), Simulations of the wind field in Athens with the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO, Environmental Software 8, 29-42.
  • Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Kunz R., Vögele T., Schneider Ch. and Kessler Ch. (1997), High resolution simulations of the wind flow and the ozone formation during the Heilbronn ozone Experiment, Atmos. Environ. 31, 3177-3186.

Other references [top]

  • Deigner M. (1995), Eindimensionale Simulation der planetaren Grenzschicht unter Berücksichtigung der Vegetation und des Feuchtetransports im Erdboden. Diplomarbeit am Institut für Wärmeübertragung und Umwelttechnik, Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Aristoteles Universität Thessaloniki.
  • Helmis C.G., Moussiopoulos N., Flocas H.A., Sahm P., Assimakopoulos V.D. Naneris C. and Maheras P. (2003), Estimation of transboundary air pollution on the basis of synoptic-scale weather types, International Journal of Climatology 23, 405-416.
  • Karatzas K., Arvanitis A., Fleck C., Douros I. and Moussiopoulos N. (2003), Atmospheric flow and air quality modelling experiments for the Siberian city of Tomsk, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Urban Air Quality (R.S. Sokhi and J. Brechler eds), Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, 25-27 March, 66-69.
  • Karatzas K., Moussiopoulos N. and Arvanitis Th. (2002), On the influence of sea-surface temperature on mesoscale flows: an example from the city of Athens, Greece, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 8, 85-90.
  • Klaic Z.B., Nitis T., Kos I. and Moussiopoulos N. (2002), Modification of the local winds due to hypothetical urbanization of the Zagreb surroundings, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 79, 1-12.
  • Kunz R. and Moussiopoulos N. (1997), Implementation and assessment of an one-way nesting technique for high resolution wind flow simulations, Atmos. Environ. 31, 3167-3176.
  • Moussiopoulos N., Douros I., Tsegas G. and Kleanthous S. (2009), An air quality management system for Cyprus, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Environment Science and Technology (CEST 09) (T.D. Lekkas, ed), Chania, Crete, Greece, 3-5 September, Vol. 1, 969-973, CD-ROM edition.
  • Moussiopoulos N., Tsegas G., Douros I., Hourdakis L. and Kleantous S. (2009), Development of an air quality management system for Cyprus, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference of Aristotle University’s Environmental Council on Climate change, sustainable development and renewable energy sources (S.E. Tsiouris and M. Ananiadou-Tzimopoulou eds), Thessaloniki, Greece, 15-17 October, 31-37 (in Greek).
  • Moussiopoulos N., Karagiannidis A., Douros I., Tsegas G. and Tsatsarelis Th. (2008), On the impact of PCDD/Fs emitted from a 2006 landfill fire near Thessaloniki, Proceedings of the 3rd Environmental Conference of Macedonia (K. Nikolaou, ed), Thessaloniki, Greece, 14-17 March, 47, CD-ROM edition (in Greek).
  • Moussiopoulos N., Karagiannidis A., Tsatsarelis Th., Douros I. and Tsegas G. (2006), Atmospheric Dispersion and Deposition Of Pcdd/Fs from a landfill fire in Tagarades, Greece, Proceedings of the Biomass and Waste To Energy Symposium (Venice 06) (Eurowaste, ed), Venice, Italy, 29 November–1 December, CD-ROM edition.
  • Moussiopoulos N. and Douros I. (2003), Evaluation and sensitivity tests of MEMO using the ESCOMPTE pre-campaign dataset, International Journal of Environment and Pollution 20, 55-63.
  • Moussiopoulos N., Douros I., Louka P., Simonidis C. and Arvanitis A. (2002), Evaluation of memo using the escompte pre-campaign dataset, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes (E. Batchvarova and D. Syrakov eds), Sofia, Bulgaria, 14-17 October, 87-91.
  • Moussiopoulos N., Ernst G., Flassak Th., Kessler Ch., Sahm P., Kunz R., Schneider Ch., Voegele T., Karatzas K., Megariti V. and Papalexiou S. (1997), The EUMAC Zooming Model, a tool supporting environmental policy decisions in the local to regional scale, in Tropospheric Modelling and Emission Estimation (Ebel A., Friedrich R. and Rodhe H., eds), Transport and Chemical Transformation of Pollutants in the Troposphere, Vol. 7, Springer, Heidelberg, 81-96.
  • Moussiopoulos, N. and Flassak, Th. (1989) A fully vectorized fast direct solver of the Helmholtz equation, in: Applications of supercomputers in engineering: Algorithms, computer systems and user experience (Brebbia, C.A. and Peters A., eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam 67-77.
  • Moussiopoulos N., Flocas H.A., Sahm P., Naneris C., Assimakopoulos V.D., Helmis C.G. and Louka P. (2002), A modelling method for estimating transboundary air pollution in south-eastern Europe, Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution, Graz, Austria, 19-21 June, Vol. 1, 117-124.
  • Moussiopoulos N., Helmis C.G., Flocas H.A., Louka P., Assimakopoulos V.D., Naneris C. and Sahm P. (2003), A modelling method for estimating transboundary air pollution in South-eastern Europe, Environmental Modelling and Software 19, 549-558.
  • Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Karatzas K., Papalexiou S. and Karagiannidis A. (1997), Assessing the impact of the new Athens airport to urban air quality with air pollution models, Atmos. Environ. 31, 1497-1511.
  • Nitis Th., Klaic Z.B., Kitsiou D. and Moussiopoulos N. (2010), Meteorological simulations with use of satellite data for assessing urban heat island under summertime anticyclonic conditions, International Journal Environment and Pollution 40, 123-135.
  • Nitis T., Prtenjak M.T., Klaic Z.B., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2003), Anatomy of the sea breeze in a complex coastal environment, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Urban Air Quality (R.S. Sokhi and J. Brechler eds), Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, 25-27 March, 400-403.
  • Sahm P., Cremades L., Toro M.V., Klaic Z.B. and Moussiopoulos N. (2001), Numerical investigation of meteorological conditions leading to elevated ozone concentrations in Medellin, Collombia, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Air Quality, Loutraki, Greece, 19-23 March, CD-ROM edition.
  • Schneider Ch., Kessler Ch. and Moussiopoulos N. (1997), Influence of emission input data on ozone level predictions for the upper Rhine valley, Atmos. Environ. 31, 3187-3205.
  • Thunis P., Galmarini S., Martilli A., Clappier A., Andronopoulos S., Bartzis J., Vlachogiannis D., De Ridder K., Moussiopoulos N., Sahm P., Almbauer R., Sturm P., Oettl D., Dierer S. and Schlünzen K.H. (2003), An inter-comparison exercise of mesoscale flow models applied to an ideal case simulation, Atmospheric Environment 37, 363-382.
  • Tourlou P.M., Sahm P. and Moussiopoulos N. (2002), Integrated assessment of air pollution abatement strategies in urban areas: Application to the greater Athens area, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 731-744.
  • Tsegas G., Barmpas Ph., Douros I. and Moussiopoulos N (2009), Implementation of efficient two-way mesoscale-microscale coupling using interpolating metamodels, Proceedings of the 30th NATO/SPS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application (ITM 09), San Francisco, USA, 18-22 May, CD-ROM edition.
  • Tsegas G., Barmpas Ph., Douros I. and Moussiopoulos N. (2008), A metamodelling implementation of a two-way coupled mesoscale-microscale flow model for urban area simulations, Hrvatski Meteoroloski Casopis 43, 181-186.
  • Wortmann-Vierthaler M. and Moussiopoulos N. (1995), Numerical tests of a refined flux corrected transport advection scheme, Environmental Software 10, 157-175.

 

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